Hendrik Lens – Head Department of Power Generation and Automatic Control, Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK), University of Stuttgart, Germany
Flexibility of thermal power plants: system needs, impact and solutions
Coal fired power plants are facing an increasingly difficult market environment and the need to be operated in a more flaxible way seems to be the only way forward. Reasons for this are: intensified trading, integration of renewables and load frequency control requirements. The talk will focus on defining the „flexibility” and on the background of the need for its increase. While some aspects may be specific for Germany, the general observations hold for other countries that undergo a transistion towards the higher shares of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix. Apart from the analysis of current situation of power plants, possible developments in the future will be discussed, in particular the effects that an improvement in flexibility may have.
Finaly, the talk will provide a short overview of selected possibilities to improve the flexibility of thermal coal and gas fired power plants.
BIO: Head of Department Power Generation and Automatic Control (SuA), Professor of Power Plant and Grid Systems Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK)
Hameed Metghalchi – Professor, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Northeastern University, MA, USA
Experimental and Numerical Determination of Laminar Burning Speed: A literature Review
Fundamentals of combustion such as burning speed and onset of autoignition measurement and flame stability analysis; development of chemistry reduction such as rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium method; non-equilibrium thermodynamics;
PhD (1980), Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Honors & Awards 2019 ASME George Westinghouse Gold Medal; 2014 ASME Edward F. Obert award Editor-in-Chief, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Journal of Energy Resources Technology Member of Board of Editors of International Journal of Thermodynamics
Deanna Lacoste – Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Plasma-assisted combustion for gas turbine applications
Over the last decade, one of the main research fields for application of non-equilibrium plasma discharges has been the enhancement of combustion systems. The idea is to enhance flames with electrical discharges, by applying an electrical power negligible compared to the thermal power released by the combustion mechanisms. For applications to gas turbines and aero-engines, non-thermal plasmas were successfully used to control thermo-acoustic instabilities in several configurations at atmospheric pressure. However, in real combustion systems, the pressure is usually in the range from 5 to 40 bar. In this presentation, I will present recent studies that have been done in order to assess if non-equilibrium plasma discharges can be a realistic option for the control of thermo-acoustic instabilities in real gas turbines.
She received the M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Poitiers, France, in 1999 and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the same university in 2002. Since 2016, she is an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the Clean Combustion Research Center, of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia. Her research mainly focus on plasma-assisted combustion, non-equilibrium plasma discharges at atmospheric pressure, control of flame dynamics and detonation.
Piotr Wolański – Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation, Warsaw, Poland
Development of the Propulsion Systems Based on Continuously Rotating Detonation
The paper presents extensive research on the application of the continuously rotating detonation combustion (CRD) to the gas turbine, rocket engine as well as rocket-ramjet combined cycle jet engine.
The main goal of introducing CRD to gas turbine engine’s combustion chamber, operating on Jet-A fuel-air mixture, is to develop a process that will results in pressure gain combustion (PGC). Application of the PGC to engine will result in a significant improvement of engine’s efficiency. In addition, due to short residence time of combustion products in detonation zone, reduction of NOx emissions will be simultaneously achieved.Stable CRD in gas turbine combustion chamber has been successfully achieved for gaseous hydrogen-air mixture and resulted with measured efficiency improvement of 5-7 %. Recently using a special mixture preparation, system stable operation of the detonation chamber was achieved for both gasoline and Jet-A liquid fuels. This opens the way for the applications of the liquid fuels in future engines utilizing CRD.
The continuously rotating detonation can be relatively easily incorporated into ramjet engine. At low Mach number an engine can work in rocket and ejector mode only, but if velocity increases, rocket motor can switch to rotating detonation combustion chamber, which will work on fuel rich mode, producing very hot partially burned products. These products will be later burned with air, during mixing in ramjet engine combustion chamber. In such case, the detonation can be organized in a special sub-chamber, where a rich fuel-air mixture can detonate. Such combined cycle rocket-ramjet engine utilizing continuously rotating detonation offers significant advantages. Experiments conducted at the institute of Aviation in Warsaw in subsonic operating conditions show thrust improvement, in normal operating conditions, over the conventional solution with deflagrative combustion mode only. Also in the detonation chamber, combustion occurs at a very small distance and the combustion chamber is compact. Since the pressure in detonation is increasing, the thermal efficiency of the system is also increasing. It also seems that combined cycle Rocket-Ramjet Engine will offer continuous thrust generation and can be applied basically as propulsion system for any Mach number.
Piotr Wolański Professor, University of Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Aviation
Research: Drives (aircraft and space), internal combustion engines, combustion, explosion safety, space research and collisions of asteroids with planetary bodies.
The most important publications:
1. Wolański P. (2013). Polish Contribution to Space Research. Pol. J. Aviat. Med. Psychol, 19(3), 45–52.
2. Wolański P. (2013). Detonative Propulsion. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 34, 125–158.
3. S. Frolov, F. Zhang and P. Wolański (2010). Explosions Dynamics and Hazards. TORUS PRESS, Moscow.
4. Wolanski P. (2010). Development of the continuous rotating detonation engines. Progress in Pulsed and Continuous Detonations, edited by G.D. Roy and S.M. Frolov, Moscow, Torus Press, 395–406.
5. Hishida M., Fujiwara T. and Wolanski P. (2009). Fundamentals of rotating detonation. Shock Waves, 19, 1–10.
Weihong Yang – Leader of Energy and Furnace Technology Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Assessment potential for combined heat, power and oil production at CHP plants (CHPO)
Sustainable utilization of biomass for energy and transportation is a challenge. In this paper, the possibility of integrating a biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis technology to an existing CHP plant, aiming at producing heat, power and bio-oil is studied. Here, the bio-oil is target as petroleum-like liquid with 12% of oxygen, which can be used as crude oil for the existing petroleum refinery, or as fuel oil. Experimental data of biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis processes are used from the KTH ongoing research. A process model based on ASPEN Plus is developed. Attractive results are obtained from the work.
Weihong Yang is a docent in KTH-group of Energy and Furnace Technology. He is focusing on thermal conversion of biomass and waste for syngas, biooil and biochar production both in experiments and modellings.
Fabrizio Scala – Associate Professor, Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
The effect of H2O and SO2 on limestone attrition and CO2 uptake during fluidized bed calcium looping
Calcium Looping (CaL) carried out in dual interconnected Fluidized Bed (FB) systems is a technique able to capture the CO2 contained in the flue gases produced from power plants. The operation of fluidized beds also entails the occurrence of attrition and fragmentation phenomena, with consequent changes in the particle size distribution, which in turn may influence the CO2 capture capacity. Moreover, the presence in the flue gas of SO2 and/or steam would have relevant effects on the sorbent reactivity.
In this work, the effect of steam and sulfur dioxide on CO2 capture by limestone during calcium looping was studied in a lab-scale twin fluidized bed device.
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy